Building constructions – concrete, reinforced concrete, brick walls or stone – are cut with diamond segments – special alloy of metals, usually nonferrous ones, with natural or synthetic diamond granules.
Diamond granules, diameter of which is 0.1–0.6 mm, are evenly distributed on the whole surface of the segment. However, a composition of the alloy has much larger impact on the performance of drilling or cutting and on the durability of tools than the diamond granules.
There are several types of diamond segments and each type is designed for drilling particular construction materials. Only the alloy of the diamond segment varies depending on the type.
A formula of the alloy is the biggest secret of companies producing diamond tools. Usually, a set of several types of segments is used in order to make a drill or saw more universal. The segments are welded to a head of a drill or a cutting disc with the help of high-frequency electrical current or laser or are soldered with silver based alloys. During drilling or cutting the segments are usually cooled with the water as this prolongs the durability of the tools and helps to avoid any dust. However, if for some reasons water cannot be used it is possible to drill without water and the generated dust then is collected with vacuum pumps. A diameter of diamond tubular drills is from 8 to 1200 mm. The drilled part is then broken out, a drill extension is put on and drilling is carried on. Thus, the maximum drilling depth, which is up 12 m theoretically, is more limited by capacity of a machine. In practice, drilling of holes deeper than 4 m is a very rare event.